Illustrative Analysis of EDI for Elementary Education in Madhya Pradesh

[DISE Flash Statistics 2009-10]

Education system of elementary education in Madhya Pradesh portraits collapsing picture in the Educational Development Index [EDI] on the performance and indicators as articulated in the latest flash Statistics of District Information System for Education [DISE] report 2009-10 released by NUEPA. Data of last three years 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 are analyzed and if was revealed that several indicators showed slight increase in the situation where as few indicators shows declining trend. The DISE survey of 2009-10 in Madhya Pradesh includes 111510 government schools and 23455 private schools in all the 50 district of Madhya Pradesh. Total 134965 schools were included this year and during 2008-09 data were gathered from 132746 schools. Out of these 134965 schools 91204 schools are primary school. Major features of the report are as follows:

  • In 2008-09 density of primary schools per 10 Sq. Km. was 3.36 which slightly increased and in 2009-10 there are 3.43 primary schools where as in 2008-09 there are 1.36 upper primary schools in the same area and it also shows a slight increase i.e., 1.42 schools per 10 Sq. Km.
  • Instructional days in a year provides student and teachers to cope up with their works and it shows a constant decline during the year 2007-08 (226), 2008-09 (222) and in 2009-10 (212).
  • During 2009-10 there were 11.40% primary schools opened for less than 200 days while 73.35% upper primary schools were opened for less than 220 days.
  • During year 2008-09 and 2009-10 all Govt. schools had 3.1 classrooms whereas it is increasing in Pvt. Schools (6.7 classrooms in 2008-09 and 7.1 classrooms in 2009-10).
  • A declining trend has been observed in single teacher schools which is a good sign. In 2007-08 there were 15.42% schools whereas in 2008-09 there were 14.63% schools and in 2009-10 14.15% schools were single teacher schools. In primary schools also it is declining in 2008-09 there were 17.44% schools were single teacher as compared to 2009-10 figures where 16.73% schools were single teacher schools.
  • In an ideal learning condition teacher pupil ratio should be 1:20 or at the maximum it may be 1:30 but this ratio was 1:36 in 2007-08 and 2009-10 and 1:35 in 2009-10. In Govt. schools this ratio was slightly high i.e., 1:38 and 1:37 in 2008-09 and 2009-10 respectively. In Govt. unaided schools this ratio was 1:31 in both, 2008-09 and 2009-10 years. In primary schools this ratio was 1:37 in 2007-08 and 2008-09 and it slightly improved in 2009-10 (1:35) in upper primary schools this ratio was 1:31 in 2007-08 1:32 in 2008-09 and 1:33 in 2009-10.
  • During the year 2009-10 teacher pupil ratio was highest (1:57) in Bihar followed by UP (1:45). Lowest teacher pupil ratio was 1:11 in Andman & Nicobar Islands and 1:12 in Sikkim.
  • In this DISE report although it is declining trend but in 2007-08 19.54% in 2008-09 17.75% and in 2009-10 15.52% primary schools had teacher pupil ratio of more than 1:60.
  • Proportion of schools having female teacher is constantly increasing and in 2007-08 there were 65.26% which increases to 66.65% in 2008-09 and further to 67.13% in 2009-10.
  • Availability of drinking water in schools also showed increasing trend 91.95%, 92.69% and 94.03% percent schools reported for this during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 respectively.
  • Girl’s toilet is necessary for the purpose of security and privacy but in 2007-08 there were 46.98% girl’s toilet which have a slight rise in 2008-09 (47.60%) but there was a high decline in the proportion and about one third schools (37.85%) had girl’s toilet.   
  • This age is being known as Computer age and Govt. is trying to make students computer literate for this purpose majority schools have been provided Computer sets under Head Start Scheme. But this report showed that in 2007-08 there were 12.36% in 2008-09 it decreased to 10.38% and in 2009-10 it slightly increased to 10.48% schools having computers. When these data were further segregated less than 5% Primary schools have computers where as in Upper Primary schools less than 25% schools have computer.
  • In 2009-10 only 10.48% schools had computer out of which around half (45.23%) computers are non functional.
  • To make schools disabled friendly it is necessary that every school should have ramp and reports revealed that in 2007-08 34.16%, in 2008-09 47.82% and in 2009-10 53.55% schools had ramp and majority of ramps are in primary schools.
  • For mid day meals there should be a kitchen shed but till 2009-10 kitchen shed were build in less than three fifth (57.30%) schools. In 2008-09 there were 58.21% schools had kitchen shed and in 2007-08 44.39% schools had kitchen shed.
  • More Primary schools had kitchen shed in comparison to Upper primary schools. There also a slight decrease in two years 2008-09 and 2009-10 had observed (68.76% and 67.60% respectively).
  • Mid day meal is to be provided in every school to every children attending schools but in India an Union Territory Dadra & Nagar Haveli highest number of schools (99.30%) were providing mid day meals to students. In MP 93.66% schools were provided mid day meals in 2009-10.
  • Availability of electric connection is also necessary but during 2008-09 only 10.74% primary schools and 20.56% all schools had electric connection where as in 2009-10 it shows a slightly decline as 9.69% primary schools and 20.07% all schools had electric connection.
  • Average number of teacher in a school was remained same (3.3) during these three years. Govt. schools had lowest number of teachers while unaided schools had highest number of teachers.  
  • Availability of professionally trained regular teachers showed good impact on students’ performance but in 2008-09 61.20% and in 2009-10 71.61% schools had professionally trained regular teachers. In Govt. managed schools situation was very disgusting where in 2008-09 83.40% schools had professionally trained teachers in 2009-10 this proportion lower down to 53.41%.
  • In 2007-08 39.37% teachers received in-service training during previous academic year. In 2008-09 and 2009-10 this proportion was 41.73% and 40.98% respectively. In India an Union territory Dadra & Nagar Haveli highest (80.50%) teachers followed by Kerala where 72.42% teachers received In-service training during the previous academic year.  India is on 16th rank among 35 States and Union Territories of India. In Govt. aided and unaided schools status of teachers training was very poor as less than 5% teachers received In-service training during the previous academic year.
  • Involvement of teachers in duties other than teaching adversely affect performance of students and in Madhya Pradesh during 2007-08 4.43% teachers involved for an average of 21 days, in 2008-09 3.82% teachers for 24 days and during 2009-10 5.27% teachers were engaged for 20 days in duties other than teaching.
  • Proportion of contractual teachers showed constant decline during these years in 2007-08 1.42% in 2008-09 1.02% and in 2009-10 0.36% teachers were recruited on contract.
  • Enrollment of students in primary classes showed declining during these three years. While it showed inclination in upper primary classes.
  • In Govt. managed primary schools enrollment in primary classes were declined where as in private managed schools it was inclined.
  • Govt. is trying hard to increase girl’s enrollment in education and this report revealed that percentage of girls’ enrollment is increasing as during 2007-08 girls’ enrollment was 48.91% which slightly increased to 49.28% in 2008-09 and further to 49.32% in 2009-10 in primary classes and in upper primary classes also it was 45.71% in 2007-08, 47.20% in 2008-09 and 48.48% in 2009-10.
  • Madhya Pradesh is on 9th rank in Gender Parity Index (0.97) in 2009-10 while during 2008-09 it was on 7th rank with same Index value of 0.97 in primary classes. In upper primary MP was on 16th rank (0.94) during 2009-10 and in 2008-09 MP was on 25th rank with 0.89 gender parity index.
  • Enrollment of SC and ST girls was continuously increasing during the reported years in both primary and upper primary classes.
  • In primary and upper primary level transition rate was also continuously increasing during reported years in 2007-08 it was 80.34 where as in 2008-09 it was 83.02.
  • Average repetition rate showed decline in 2007-08 and 2008-09 in both primary (10.44 and 7.89 respectively) and in upper primary (6.97 and 5.28 respectively)
  • During the year 2007-08 and 2008-09 average dropout rate had shown increase at primary level in 2007-08 average drop out rate was 6.55 whereas in 2008-09 it was 8.20. among boys and girls drop out rate was higher in boys (8.81) as compared to girls (7.57) in 2008-09. Data of 2009-10 were not reported in the report.
  • At primary level retention rate was lowered down from 94.30 in 2007-08 to 75.14 in 2008-09 and it was further declined to 71.78 in 2009-10.
  • In 2008-09 28.02% boys and in 2009-10 38.03% boys secured more than 60% marks while among girls in 2008-09 26.06% and in 2009-10 37.28% girls secured more than 60% marks in primary level. in upper primary level in 2008-09 25.16% boys and in 2009-10 34.13% boys secured more than 60% marks while among girls in 2008-09 26.42% and in 2009-10 35.29% girls secured more than 60% marks.

The EDI, which has four variables - access, infrastructure, teachers and outcomes – assigns scores and ranks to each of them for the primary and upper primary level and then draws up a composite index. Madhya Pradesh slumps in three among these four variables pertaining to primary education. EDI ranges between 0.000 to 1.000.

Access-

Easy access of schools ensures more and more enrollment and retention of students in the schools. Under the access indicators, namely, percentage of un-served habitation, availability of schools per thousand child populations and ratio of primary schools to upper primary schools/sections has been used.

In access index MP was on 13th rank with 0.561 Index at primary level which increased upto 11th rank with 0.577 Index in 2009-10. At upper primary level MP was on 17th rank during both the years 2008-09 and 2009-10 with 0.722 Index in 2008-09 and 0.664 in 2009-10

Infrastructure –

At a time when the government is trying to increase enrollment in schools, especially for girls, EDI has brought to fore the lack of basic infrastructure with enormous downfall in all India ranking of Madhya Pradesh from 19th in 2008-09 to 26th in 2009-10. Though, we have made progress in the infrastructure development in 2007-08 but in 2008-09 and 2009-10, showed reverse trend with the ED index decreased from 0.721 to 0.637 and further to 0.535 at primary level. in upper primary level also MP got the same rank i.e., 19th in 2008-09 and 26th in 2009-10 with Index value 0.698 and 0.577 respectively. It means still quite large number of schools are running in lack of basic infrastructure and facilities.

Teachers-

Other important indicator is the ratio of teachers in the schools. In 2008-09, lack of teachers contributed further to dwindle the supply of quality education to students. The EDI rank on teacher’s index slipped down from 30th position to 32nd position which again takes a slight rise in 2009-10 and goes to 31st position at primary level. At upper primary level MP was on 31st rank with Index value of 0.427 in 2008-09 which declined in 2009-10 and it goes to 33rd rank with 0.428 Index value.

Output-

The last set of indicators is related to outcome indicators amongst which gross enrolment ratio (overall, SC & ST) is the most important one. Average drop-out and repetition rates are other important outcome indicators. The Madhya Pradesh shows modest improvement in outcomes with EDI rank stepping forward to 30th from 35th rank during 2007-08 and 2008-2009 in 2009-10 it further improved to 27th rank at upper primary level. At primary level MP was on 18th rank with 0.699 Index value in 2008-09 but in 2009-10 it goes down to 23rd rank with 0.670 Index value.

In composite Educational Development Index and rank MP was on 25th rank with 0.571 Index value in 2008-09 at primary level which skipped down to 27th rank in 2009-10 with Index value of 0.433. During both the years Puducherry was on 1st rank. At upper primary level and for combined level also Puducherry was on 1st rank. In upper primary level composite EDI of MP was 0.585 and 26th rank in 2008-09 and 0.540 and 28th rank in 2009-10. For combined level of primary and upper primary level EDI was 0.578 and 25th rank in 2008-09 and 0.486 with 30th rank in 2009-10

Dr. Apara Vijayawargiya from Vikas Samvad   

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